Category MAKEUP ARTISTRY

WHO’S WHO in MAKEUP

These are the pioneers who helped shape the beauty industry and also greatly influenced me as an artist.

Helena Rubinstein (1870-1965)

Born in Poland, she was the eldest of eight daughters. After immigrating to Australia, she opened the world’s first modern beauty salon. She later relocated to the United States, opened a salon in New York City, and became a lifelong rival of Elizabeth Arden. In 1962, Rubinstein’s salon was the first to introduce the concept of a “day of beauty.” It consisted of an exercise class, massage, lunch, facial, shampoo, hairstyling, manicure, pedicure, and makeup session and cost $35.

Max Factor (1877-1938)

Born in Poland as Max Faktor, his name morphed into Factor in 1904, when he went through Ellis Island on his way to becoming an American. In Los Angeles, he began selling his lotions and makeup, and soon he had developed a new type of makeup formulated specifically for the movies. It was called “flexible greasepaint” because, unlike standard film makeup, it didn’t crack. In 1920, Factor introduced his cosmetics to the public, giving the average woman a chance to buy a little bit of Hollywood glamour at her local drugstore.

Coco Chanel (1883-1971)

Although primarily remembered as a fashion designer, Chanel also created some of the world’s most memorable perfumes. In 1922, she introduced Chanel No. 5, which to this day is a worldwide best seller.

Elizabeth Arden (1884-1966)

Born in Ontario, Canada, as Florence Nightingale Graham, she moved to New York in 1908, where she worked as a bookkeeper at E. R. Squibb Pharmaceuticals Company. Whenever possible, Graham spent time in the company’s lab, learning the skills she would later use to create her own skincare lotions. She jumped at an opportunity to go to work for a “beauty culturist” doing skin treatments. There she met Elizabeth Hubbard and, in 1909, the two opened their own Fifth Avenue salon. When the partnership ended, Graham retained her partner’s first name, Elizabeth, and chose the last name Arden, from the Tennyson poem “Enoch Arden.” Thus, Elizabeth Arden was born. She quickly expanded her repertoire from giving skincare treatments to creating makeup colors. She worked tirelessly for her self-made company into her eighties.

Charles Revson (1906-1975)

In 1932, Revson went into business with his brother and a chemist named Charles Lachman. They founded a company called Revlon and launched it with the introduction of a nail polish. Revlon became known for nail polishes in a wide variety of colors. Eventually, they marketed matching lipsticks, including the legendary Fire and Ice shade of bold red.

Estee Lauder (1908-2004)

As an enterprising young woman, Lauder began selling the skin creams created by her uncle, a chemist. In 1948, she convinced the managers at Saks Fifth Avenue to give her counter space to sell her line. She is credited with pioneering the concept of “gift with purchase,” giving away free samples to her customers. In 1953, she introduced her first fragrance, Youth Dew, a bath oil meant to be lavishly splashed over the entire body. By 1984, annual sales of that product had reached $150 million.

Mary Kay Ash (1918-2001)

Born in Hot Wells, Texas, Mary Kay Ash worked in direct sales until 1963, when she retired to write a book to assist women in business. The book turned into a business plan and by September 1963, with only five thousand dollars, she founded Mary Kay Cosmetics with her son, Richard Rogers.

They developed a line of skincare products and color cosmetics, initially sold out of a storefront in Dallas, Texas. With the Golden Rule as the founding principle of her company, she insisted that her employees keep their lives in balance. She authored a total of three books, all of which became best sellers. Her book on people management, has been included as a text at the Harvard Business School. At the time of Ash’s death, Mary Kay Cosmetics had over 800,000 representatives in 37 countries, with total annual sales of more than $2 billion at retail.

Shu Uemura (1928-2007)

The founder of shu uemura cosmetics, he was the first to merge makeup and art through makeup performances on stage and his seasonal Mode Makeup collections. His career began in Hollywood in 1955 and it took off when he was called to substitute for Shirley MacLaine’s makeup artist. His first product, Unmask Cleansing Oil, came out in 1960. His first makeup school opened in Tokyo shortly thereafter. His first open workshop/concept cosmetics boutique opened in 1983. The Tokyo Lash Bar, with a huge variety of false-lash concepts, was launched in 2007.

Way Bandy (1941-1986)

Bandy was one of the best-known freelance makeup artists of the 70s and 80s. He created Calvin Klein’s first cosmetics collection, which featured burgundy packaging. His best-selling books are a great source of information and inspiration to makeup artists today.

George Newell (1954-1992)

George Newell began his career as a model and makeup artist in Houston. He moved to New York in 1977 to work as a freelance makeup artist, and became famous for a Halston layout he did for Vogue in 1979, where he served as both a fashion model and a makeup artist. In the early 1980s he established George Newell, Inc., a management and talent agency in Los Angeles, representing photographers, stylists, makeup artists, and hair stylists. During his career he designed many Vanity Fair and Vogue covers.

Frank Toskan & Frank Angelo (1948-1997)

In 1985, these two Canadians joined creative forces to form MAC (Make-up Art Cosmetics). Toskan was a makeup artist and photographer, and Angelo operated a chain of beauty salons. Toskan was frustrated with the available cosmetic offerings, all of which had glossy finishes that he thought reflected too much light in photographs. The company marketed an expanded color line (to suit more skin tones) and products with matte finishes. Today, MAC is known as much for its ethical policies and good works as it is for its products.

Kevyn Aucoin (1962-2002)

As a child growing up in Louisiana, Aucoin studied fashion magazines and tried to duplicate the looks he saw on his younger sister, Carla. After attending beauty school, he moved to New York in 1983. His big break came when a beauty editor at Vogue asked to see his book. In 1986, he did his first Vogue cover shoot with the photographer Richard Avedon. During his career, he worked with countless A-list celebrities and showcased his work in three books: The Art of Makeup, Making Faces, and Face Forward.

Ariella

Ariella is best known for her longtime collaboration with the photographer Richard Avedon. She did the makeup for countless American Vogue covers as well as the iconic photo in 1981 featuring Natassja Kinski entwined with a boa constrictor.

Serge Lutens

Serge Lutens is a French photographer, filmmaker, hair stylist, perfumer, and fashion designer. In 1962, he moved to Paris, where Vogue magazine hired him to create makeup, hair, and jewelry looks. During the 60s he worked with photographer greats such as Richard Avedon, Bob Richardson, and Irving Penn. He created a makeup line for Christian Dior in 1967. In 1980, he was hired by Shiseido to develop its image internationally and to create the fragrance Nombre Noir. Both the fragrance and its packaging were considered ahead of their time. In the early 90s he designed Les Salons du Palais Royal, a perfume boutique, and in 2000, launched his own brand.

Alberto Fava

Alberto Fava began his career as a makeup artist in Rome in 1970, assisting Gil Cagne. In the 1970s he collaborated with fashion magazines, started to design makeup for fashion shows, and worked with several prominent photographers. As beauty editor for Mirabella magazine, he helped envision and plan the style and content of beauty stories.

Sandy Linter

Sandy Linter is a legendary makeup artist in New York City. Linter has spent the past thirty years working with celebrities and models. She is recognized throughout the beauty community for her age – defying techniques, which have been known to take off more years than cosmetic surgery. A frequent contributor to the country’s leading fashion and beauty magazines, Linter’s work has appeared in Vogue, Harper’s Bazaar, and Vanity Fair.

Linda Mason

Linda Mason reinvented the role of makeup on the runway in the late 70s. Her artistry was an integral part of signature looks for designers such as Gaultier and Mugler and for the label Comme des Garmons. In 1987, she started Linda Mason Elements, Inc.

Mary Quant

Working as a fashion designer in London in the 50s, Mary Quant was on a mission to make youthful fashion affordable. Her King’s Road boutique became a Mecca for girls in search of the mod look and Quant’s famous miniskirts. In the 60s she expanded her line to include paintbox makeup—a collection of bold, fun colors in a compact container.

Bonnie Maller

New York-based freelance makeup artist Bonnie Maller is best known for introducing the natural makeup look in the late 70s. She created looks for Ralph Lauren, Perry Ellis, and Calvin Klein, and her work was showcased in magazines around the world. She collaborated frequently with the photographer Bruce Weber.

Stephane Marais

Stephane Marais is a French makeup artist and entrepreneur whose quirky imagery has earned him global attention. He is widely known for his collaboration with Peter Lindbergh, his consulting work for Shiseido, and his ability to be understated and dramatic at the same time. He opened a flagship store in Paris in 2002.

Linda Cantello

Linda Cantello’s career began in the early 80s, and since then she has worked in high-luxury advertising campaigns, collaborated with top photographers, and worked with some of the best fashion and beauty publications. She was commissioned by MAC and Kanebo to recast their color lines and recently launched her signature makeup and skincare line.

Mary Greenwell

Mary Greenwell began her career in the 80s in Paris. She has since worked with every big-name photographer, and trained many of today’s makeup artists. Her eye for detail and color led to a contract with Shiseido, where she created new colors, taking the collection in a new direction. She is a regular artist at fashion shows and has a large celebrity clientele. Her work has been seen in all the leading magazines, in editorial, and in ad campaigns for Yohji Yamamoto, Valentino, DKNY, Estee Lauder, Guerlain, L’Oreal, Max Factor, and Comme des Garmons.

Barbara Daly

British makeup artist Barbara Daly began working in the 1960s and is popularly known for her work on the 1971 Stanley Kubrick film, A Clockwork Orange. She was called on by Diana, Princess of Wales, to do her wedding day makeup. And she is the creator of a makeup line available at the UK retailer Tesco.

Francois Nars

Born in the South of France, Francois Nars attended the Carita makeup school in Paris. In 1984, he began working with fashion’s top publications, collaborated with top designers, including Dolce & Gabbana, Marc Jacobs, and Karl Lagerfeld, and with legendary photographers, such as Richard Avedon, Patrick Demarchelier, Steven Meisel, Helmut Newton, Irving Penn, and Bruce Weber. Frustrated with the cosmetics lines available, Nars developed and successfully launched NARS, a cosmetics and skincare company, in 1994. He is also a professional photographer and the author of X – Ray (1999) and coauthor of Makeup Your Mind (2002).

Joey Mills

Joey Mills was widely known in the 70s and 80s for his classic American style. His work appeared in countless magazine covers, editorials, and advertising campaigns.

Reggie Wells

A veteran in the makeup industry, Reggie Wells has worked with countless actresses, painting his iconic, glamorous sculpted faces. Reggie is also widely known for his work with Oprah Winfrey as both a guest and behind-the-scenes makeup artist. He is an Emmy Award winner and author of Face Painting.

Tom Pecheux

Tom Pecheux lives and works in Paris. He is a beauty designer and key makeup artist for some of the top makeup brands, including Shiseido and MAC. His work on fashion shows for Prada, Karl Lagerfeld, and Alberta Ferretti, among others, has won him a loyal following in the fashion industry. He’s also worked with countless musicians including Madonna and Avril Lavigne on music videos, collaborating with the top fashion designers in the business.

Dick Page

This British makeup artist has a reputation as an industry leader. He is known for his editorial, advertising, and runway work. Since 1997, he has worked with Shiseido in Japan on its premier domestic line of cosmetics, and in 2001, he was made artistic director of the makeup line. He redesigned and relaunched the line in August 2002 as Inoui ID. In March 2007, he was named artistic director of Shiseido The Makeup. Page frequently contributes to Allure with his own insider’s page of tips and ideas entitled “The Makeup Guy.” He currently acts as the key makeup artist for the runway shows of Michael Kors, Narciso Rodriguez, Marc Jacobs, Marc by Marc Jacobs, and United Bamboo.

Pat McGrath

Pat McGrath is a British makeup artist known for her wide range and inventive use of materials: her makeup is often handmade, and she works mainly with her fingers rather than with brushes.

McGrath’s big break came while working with Edward Enninful at i-D magazine in the early 90s. She became known for her dramatic, stylized designs, including bodies drenched in paint and petals glued to faces. She designed Armani’s cosmetics line in 1999 and in 2004 was named global creative – design director for Procter and Gamble, where she is in charge of Max Factor and Cover Girl cosmetics, among other brands.

Laura Mercier

Raised in Provence, Laura Mercier trained at the Carita school, where she specialized in makeup application. In her early career, she began working closely with Thibault Vabre, a well-known French makeup artist. In 1985, Mercier moved to New York to join the team to launch American Elle. She soon began working for advertising campaigns for major corporations, editorial spreads for magazines, and multiple cosmetics and clothing companies, and worked with Madonna to create looks for print, television, and film. She then contracted with Elizabeth Arden to design the makeup looks for advertising campaigns and worked on Chanel’s advertising campaigns in France. In 1996, Mercier developed her own line, which is now in four hundred stores in twenty-one countries.

Sam Fine

Sam Fine began his education in makeup behind the cosmetics counters of department stores. He studied art in New York while continuing to work in the cosmetics department of a large specialty store. His transition to freelance artist occurred when Naomi Campbell’s makeup artist was unavailable for a show and she called Sam. He is known especially for his work with African American women and as the author of Fine Beauty.

Joanne Gair

Joanne Gair is an artist and image maker who has emerged as the premiere makeup artist/body painter in the world. From New Zealand, Gair has an interest in art photography. Her work as a makeup artist and body painter has appeared in editorial covers, layouts, fashion campaigns, advertising, music videos, commercials, and motion pictures.

Heidi Morawetz

Heidi Morawetz was the creative director of Chanel’s makeup studio in Paris for over thirty years. Morawetz created the “face” of each season for the runway shows. She developed Chanel’s famous Rouge Noir nail polish (Vamp) in 1994; the blood red shade is still Chanel’s best-selling nail polish color. She began as a freelance makeup artist and stylist until Dominique Moncourtois discovered her work and brought her into Chanel. Together with Moncourtois, Morawetz built the Chanel makeup business into the success it is today.

Dominique Moncourtois

Dominique Moncourtois spent thirty-six years as the director of Chanel’s Makeup Creation. As a child, he spent holidays in Paris with his great aunt, a former model who introduced him to the art of makeup. From 1963 to 1967 he worked as a makeup artist and wigmaker in the film industry, and in 1968, he joined Chanel. He continues to create and develop new looks and technology for makeup.

Fulvia Farolfi

Fulvia Farolfi’s work appears in Vogue, Harper’s Bazaar, and Wmagazines, to name a few, and she works regularly with top photographers including Irving Penn, Bruce Weber, and Raymond Meier. She’s a fixture at the runway shows in New York and Europe and has developed makeup lines for Emporio Armani and Shiseido.

Charlie Green

Charlie Green began her career in London, working on music videos for talents like Kylie Minogue and Bryan Ferry, then headed to Paris where she made her name collaborating with photographers David LaChapelle and Michael Thompson, and designers like Vivienne Westwood and Chloe. Now based in the United States, Green is a celebrity and editorial favorite.

Paul Starr

Paul Starr is a Los Angeles-based celebrity-makeup artist whose clients include Jennifer Garner, Salma Hayek, Michelle Pfeiffer, Angelina Jolie, and countless others. He has worked with photographers such as Patrick Demarchelier, David LaChappelle, and Annie Leibovitz. Starr has worked over twenty years in film, music videos, and print, and he has also worked with Estee Lauder on a makeup collection.

Gucci Westman

Gucci Westman studied makeup in Paris, then headed to Los Angeles, where she focused on special – effects makeup. She was “discovered” when photographer Annie Leibovitz called on her for a 1996 Vanity Fair cover shoot. In addition to working regularly with the beauty and fashion industry’s top magazines and designers, Gucci has lent her expertise to the cosmetics company Lancome.

Scott Barnes

Scott Barnes came to New York City at the age of seventeen to begin a career as a painter. A graduate of Detroit’s Center for Creative Studies, and New York’s Parsons School for Design, he began to find work on fashion photography shoots. Scott used his painting skills to model faces for fashion and soon secured an agent for his work. His work is known for its sexiness with a global sensibility and has been published by Vogue, InStyle, Elle, Vanity Fair, Rolling Stone, and Premiere. He works regularly with celebrated photographers such as Herb Ritts, Patrick Demarchelier, Annie Leibovitz, and Matthew Rolston, as well as many A-list celebrities.

Joe Blasco

Joe Blasco began his study of the art of makeup at the early age of seven. He was awarded a scholarship to cosmetology school, and after graduating in 1964 at the age of eighteen, he arrived in Hollywood to work for the Max Factor cosmetics company. In 1967 he set out to pursue a career in Hollywood as a makeup artist. He took a job as an instructor with a small makeup school and recognized the need for a course that taught motion picture and television makeup artistry. He became known for his work in special makeup effects. In 1976 he opened the first of two renowned makeup training centers.

Diane Kendal

Diane Kendal’s signature look—one that’s rock and roll but gorgeous and approachable—has made her an industry favorite. She collaborates regularly with Catherine Malandrino, Jean Paul Gaultier, Balenciaga, Carolina Herrera, and Calvin Klein. Her work appears frequently in W, Vogue, and Vanity Fair. Additionally, she regularly represents MAC at Fashion Week and designed Calvin Klein’s cosmetic line from 2002 to 2003.

LEGENDS

the HISTORY of MAKEUP

c. 500,000 B. C.E. Cave dwellers in Africa and South America cover their bodies with mud applied in decorative patterns. The mud also functions as an insect repellent.

c. 3000 B. C.E. Egyptians use more than thirty different types of cosmetic balms and ointments made from ingredients such as beeswax, vegetable oil, and animal fat. Moisturizers are considered so essential, they are routinely distributed to workers and farmers.

Egyptian women have elaborate makeup chests, equipment, and products. They give themselves egg white facials, use complexion cream, and apply perfumed oils. Women paint their faces with a (deadly) powder made from lead carbonate and water. Nails are painted with henna, and lipsticks are available in several orange-based shades. The use of red is banned, as it is considered magical. To outline the eyes, they use either powdered kohl or crushed ant’s eggs. Eye shadows in red or green are created using plant stems. Other makeup tools include stone pestles for grinding, bronze or silver mirrors, ivory or alabaster spoons, bronze jars for holding face cream, linen, razors, ivory combs, and pumice.

c. 2000 B. C.E. An Egyptian papyrus includes formulas for removing wrinkles, pimples, age spots, and other blemishes. One mixture includes bullock’s bile. Egyptians who want to get rid of wrinkles are told to apply a mixture of incense, olive oil, crushed cyperus, and wax to the face and to leave it on for six days.

Overseers stop all work on the pyramids until makeup supplies (kohl, green malachite, and galena) that help to protect the eyes of workers from the sun are delivered.

c. 2500 B. C.E. Sumerians invent the first tweezers to get rid of unwanted hair and use a flat bone to push back cuticles.

c. 1800 B. C.E. Gold dust is used by Babylonian men to powder their hair.

c. 1500 B. C.E. Egyptian women use body oils scented with frankincense and myrrh to moisturize and protect their skin from the dry, dusty climate.

Mesopotamian soldiers are paid in bottles of oil and perfume, which are more highly valued than cash.

c. 1200 B. C.E. Egyptians of this era are wearing a full face of cosmetics. They create eye shadows out of malachite, a copper ore that has a greenish tone, to line their bottom lids. Eyelashes and upper lids are darkened with powder made from lead ore.

c. 600 B. C.E. Makeup and lavish clothing is worn by all Babylonians of rank. An ambitious warrior named Parsondes was said to have complained to King Nebuchadnezzar about the governor Nanarus’s focus on beauty rather than on government. When word got back to the governor, Nanarus ordered that the warrior shave all his hair and wear makeup and perfumed oils.

c. 400 B. C.E. Women from various cultures use powders made from crushed minerals, such as ocher, hematite, and white lead, to color their skin.

FIRST CENTURY B. C.E. Roman women use saffron or wood ash as eye shadow and antimony to darken their lids, lashes, and brows. Fucus, a purple pigment, is mixed with saliva and used for rouge and lip color. Blue paint is used to outline veins, which are seen as a sign of beauty. Nails are buffed with sheep’s fat. Pumice is used to whiten teeth.

SECOND CENTURY A. D. Women in Palestine apply a mixture of starch, white lead, and crimson dye to their faces as an early form of blush.

THIRD CENTURY A. D. Talmudic law forbids Jewish women from applying makeup on the Sabbath.

636 The first glass mirror is invented. Women hang them, placed in elaborate cases, on a chain from their girdles, and men keep theirs under their hats.

1370 Charles V of France receives a gift of Hungary water, a body rub made of an alcohol base with rosemary, cedar, and turpentine. Soap is a luxury, but the use of these waters sweetens the smell of the body.

c. 1400 Cosmetics, including a white paste made of flour to cover the face, become increasingly popular among the French aristocracy. Women pluck their hairlines and even remove their eyebrows in the name of beauty.

c. 1500 Renaissance women use a mixture of honey and egg whites to condition their skin. White lead is applied to reduce the appearance of wrinkles. Mercuric sulphide is used for rouge. To keep complexions clear, some wash their faces in urine or a mixture of rose water and wine. To reduce ruddiness, raw veal soaked in warm milk for several hours is placed on the affected area.

c. 1550 Catherine de Medicis uses a skin tonic made from crushed peach blossoms mixed with almond oil.

1597Gerard’s Herbal is published. This is one of the first printed publications to include recipes for various skin creams, including one for acne.

c. 1600 To soothe chapped lips, it is recommended that sweat from behind the ears be applied to the affected area.

1603 Queen Elizabeth I dies and is rumored to have an inch and a half of makeup on her face at the time of her passing. This is not uncommon in an era when no one washes their faces, and makeup is used to cover the horrible scars left by smallpox.

LATE 1600s A doll-like look with a pure white face and scarlet cheeks is all the rage. A foundation of white ceruse, which contains lead, is mixed on a palette with water or egg white and applied to the skin. Rouge is commonly applied by rubbing a piece of Spanish felt or wool that has been dyed scarlet onto dampened cheeks.

LATE 1600s TO 1700s Silk taffeta or thin leather patches in shapes like flowers, stars, and moons become a popular product to temporarily conceal smallpox scars on the face. More than just cover – ups, however, the patches signal a woman’s availability if placed near the lips. Engaged women wear them on the left cheek and switch to the right after marriage. Some even carry small patch boxes with them to social events to replace any that fall off. Small scenes are sometimes pasted over an eyebrow, and profiles of family members are sometimes worn on the face.

c. 1830 Women put a few drops of belladonna into their eyes to dilate the pupils, creating a dreamy look. Belladonna is a plant extract used since ancient times as a poison.

1846 Pond’s Extract, a commercial cold cream, is introduced.

1867 The department store B. Altman and Company opens a “making up” department to teach women to apply rouge, powder, and eyebrow pencil.

1886 Avon, the door-to-door cosmetics line, is founded by David Hall McConnell, a former door-to – door book salesman.

c. 1900 Guerlain introduces the first lip colors to come in stick form

1891 Polish-born Helena Rubinstein opens the world’s first modern beauty salon, in Australia. She sells a simple face cream inspired by her mother’s beauty cream. The product is an instant hit among Autralian women. In 1902 Helena expands her business to London, followed by Paris in 1906 and New York in 1912.

1908 Actresses are the only people who know much about makeup, as it is used exclusively for the stage. No woman dares to go out in public with more than the lightest dusting of rice powder. Rice powder makes the face appear lighter but also swells up in the pores of the skin, enlarging them. Helena Rubinstein starts to produce a tinted face powder that is more natural looking, does not have harmful side effects, and has a broad appeal.

1909 Rubinstein’s lifelong rival, Elizabeth Arden, opens her Fifth Avenue salon.

1909 The Russian immigrant Max Factor opens his first makeup studio in Hollywood.

1909 Eugene Schueller, a French chemist, opens the French Harmless Hair Dye Company, selling the first safe commercial hair dye product. A year later, he renames his product L’Oreal.

c. 1910 The first pressed compact powders—complete with mirrors and puffs—are introduced.

1910The Daily Mirror Beauty Book is published. The makeup hints and recipes for homemade lotions reflect the fact that cosmetics have become publicly accepted for the first time in almost one hundred years. The little booklet includes references to a device that curls lashes, a homemade eyebrow darkener, and astringent lotion, and it suggests using a pencil line to elongate the eyes.

1910 Tattoos are extremely popular in Britain. George Burchett, a famous tattooist, practices his art on men and women alike. His card indicates that he can tint and shade complexions and remove moles, blemishes, and other marks.

1914 After seeing his sister Maybel apply petroleum jelly to her lashes, T. L. Williams formulates the first mascara. He forms a company, named Maybelline after his sister, to manufacture the new product.

c. 1920 Coco Chanel makes tans chic, calling a suntan an important “fashion accessory.”

1920s The flapper Clara Bow is everyone’s favorite “it” girl. Her look includes heavy eyeliner and ultrathin eyebrows.

The opening of chain stores, in which products and prices can be examined by all, make inexpensive cosmetics available to everyone.

1922 Elizabeth Arden opens a salon on Bond Street in London.

1930 When she finds that her new cream can heal and improve the skin in a matter of hours, Elizabeth Arden names the product Eight Hour Cream It remains a best seller to this day.

1932 Revlon launches its first nail enamel.

1939-1945 World War II restricts the manufacture of cosmetics. Petroleum and alcohol, two principal ingredients used in makeup, are needed for war supplies.

1940s Joan Crawford’s heavily penciled-in, arched eyebrows become the trademark look for the 1940s career woman.

1943 Estee Lauder launches her company with a line of six products.

1952 Revlon’s Fire and Ice, an all-out sexy red lipstick color, is launched and becomes an instant success.

1960 The Color Additive Amendment requires that coloring ingredients in cosmetics be tested for safety and approved by the FDA.

1967 Estee Lauder launches a new line called Clinique, which emphasizes scientific skincare and cosmetics.

1967 The supermodel Twiggy popularizes a dramatic eye look; she draws lashes around the eye with a pencil and applies numerous false lashes, creating a doe-eyed effect.

1970s Natural makeup is all the rage.

Models to know: Veruschka, Marissa Berenson, Lauren Hutton, Margaux and Mariel Hemingway, Cheryl Tiegs, Christie Brinkley, Beverly Johnson.

Beauty icons: Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Bo Derek, Farrah Fawcett, whose poster was the top­selling poster in history.

1972 Ilana Harkavi, a former professional dancer, launches Il Makiage. The line is positioned as “the makeup artist’s makeup.”

1974 Lauren Hutton becomes the first model to sign an exclusive cosmetics contract. Revlon signs her for $100,000.

1975 Trish McEvoy launches a line of makeup brushes to fill the demand for high-quality makeup tools.

1977 Calvin Klein launches a line of cosmetics, which relaunches in 2005.

1980s Makeup is strong and exaggerated. Color trends are bold—lots of blues and fuchsias. Avon and Mary Kay create palettes to take the guesswork out of choosing a color scheme.

Models to know: Rosemary McGrath, Pat Cleveland, Esme, Lisa Taylor, Jerry Hall.

Beauty icons: Madonna, Grace Jones, Jane Fonda, Pat Benatar.

1984 Canadians Frank Toskan, a makeup artist and photographer, and Frank Angelo, a hair salon owner, launch Make-up Art Cosmetics, or MAC. Their line, which is originally designed for use in fashion photography, wins a wide following with its socially conscious motto: “All ages, all races, all sexes.”

Make Up For Ever is launched by Dany Sanz and Jacques Waneph to meet the unique needs of the stage and fashion industries.

1985 Paulina Porizkova signs on as the face of Estee Lauder for six million dollars.

1990 Hollywood makeup artist Carol Shaw launches LORAC, a line featuring oil and fragrance-free foundations.

1988 Ultima II relaunches the Naked Collection.

1990s Makeup is all about looking natural.

Models to know: Linda Evangelista, Christy Turlington, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Tatjana

Patitz.

Beauty icons: Jennifer Aniston, Jennifer Lopez.

1991 New York makeup artist Bobbi Brown launches Bobbi Brown essentials with ten brown-based lipsticks at Bergdorf Goodman.

1994 Kate Moss appears on Calvin Klein Obsession perfume ads and billboards Jeanine Lobell launches Stila cosmetics.

Fashion model Iman launches IMAN, a line of cosmetics for women of color.

Francois Nars launches NARS with twelve lipsticks at Barneys New York. In 1996 he shoots his first advertising campaign for his brand, and continues to do so today.

1995 Frustrated by the lack of bold, vibrant colors, Vincent Longo launches his own line.

1996 Creme de la Mer, a potent cream developed by aerospace physicist Max Huber, is relaunched. Laura Mercier launches her line of cosmetics.

1999 Sonia Kashuk launches the Sonia Kashuk Professional Makeup collection for Target. This marks the first partnership between a high-profile makeup artist and mass-market retailer.

2000s-Present Fake tans, sun beds, and tanning products are all the rage, mineral-based makeup enters the marketplace, and makeup brands explode.

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WORKING with CELEBRITIES

Working with celebrities is fun and challenging. Just like every woman, they want to find a look that is right for them while looking beautiful. Whether you are doing their makeup for an early – morning television appearance, a movie premiere, a photo shoot, or the Oscars, you have to adapt the look to suit the clothes, lighting, and occasion. And as with any relationship, if it’s your first time working with a certain celebrity, go slowly, ask a lot of questions, and hand her the mirror frequently to avoid getting big surprises at the end of the application. If it is a celebrity you’ve worked with regularly, just ask a few quick questions about what she’s going to be wearing and the look she wants.

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Makeup kit owned by Frank Sinatra’s makeup artist.

 

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MAKEUP for FASHION SHOWS

Working as a makeup artist at a fashion show is similar in many ways to doing the makeup for a theatrical production. Just as theatrical makeup has to represent the vision of the director or the playwright, the final look you see on the runway is a collaboration between the designer, the makeup artist, the hairstylist, and the model. As fashion shows have increasingly become a media circus, with television cameras and photographers recording every aspect of the event both on the runway and backstage, the makeup artist’s role has become even more important. It is not enough to make a model look beautiful; a makeup artist must be able to speak about the designer’s vision and the current style trends.

Working with models is like working with a blank canvas. You can experiment and try things that would probably look horrible on a real woman but look great on the runway or in a photo. I do believe that if the model likes her look, the shoot will go better. I have had to apologize for creating a severe look that the model hates but is required by the designer or photographer. All of these situations take confidence, patience, communication, and a willingness to take risks.

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WHAT HAPPENS BEFORE THE SHOW The Makeup Test

If it’s the first time you’ve worked with a designer, research his or her design style and history. This will give you an idea of the aesthetics of past shows.

About a week before the fashion show, the makeup artist and designer meet to discuss the look. After viewing the clothes, the designer will give you his or her vision for the collection. Designers are very visual, but aren’t always able to communicate what they want. Your role is to interpret their vision. Most designers have photos of inspirational objects to help you with the interpretation. Ask a lot of questions. If the designer mentions he wants a strong eye, ask if he’s thinking Sophia Loren in the 60s or the modern Gucci eye. Keep asking until you feel confident that you have the right vision in your head.

Next, do some trials and experiment with some options to show the designer and stylist your interpretations of the look. You may get the right look quickly, or it can take quite a long time. Sometimes makeup is done on a pretty assistant, but show makeup works best on a model. There is a reason models are models: they showcase makeup better than other people.

Once the final look is approved, sketch it. Purchase anything you think you will need that is not already in your kit, and complete a face chart that includes all of the products, with color identification, location on the face, and any special information needed to complete the look. You will need a makeup team. Find out how many models will be walking and hire one artist for every two to three models.

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WHAT HAPPENS DURING THE SHOW

Stay calm This is the key to working on a fashion show. There will be plenty of chaos, lots of distractions, and last-minute emergencies. You also have to be flexible; sometimes makeup is completely changed thirty minutes before the show.

On the day of the fashion show, you need to arrive two to four hours before the show is scheduled to begin.

Start by using one of the models to do a trial run of the makeup. When her face is done, bring her out onto the runway so you and the designer can check the results under the lights. If you have assistants working with you, bring them out as well so they hear what you and the designer decide.

Once the look gets approved, the team begins to work. Adjust the colors for each model’s skin tone. Even if the designer says he wants pastel pink on everyone’s cheeks, remember that the exact same color won’t work on different skin tones.

Many of the models will arrive backstage from another show. They will already have a full face of makeup on, and you will have only minutes to change their look completely. To save time, hand the model a tissue covered in non-oily makeup remover, and instruct her to wipe off her lipstick and eye shadow. You can have her leave the foundation and mascara on, but you must check it carefully to determine whether it will work with the look you’re trying to create. No matter how little time you have, if the foundation isn’t right, you must take it all off and start from scratch.

Right before the show begins, you need to check the models for refreshing or additional powder to combat shine.

Even after the models start heading down the runway, your job is not done. As the models change clothes, they might mess up their lips, or they might need a touch-up with powder. Your job is to continue standing by, ready to fix whatever might need fixing.

MAKEUP for TELEVISION & FILM

TELEVISION

There is a misconception that makeup done for television has to be heavy. That is not the case. The bright lights of television studios can wash out makeup colors, but don’t overcompensate with too heavy a hand. Use the same products you would use for day. Just make sure they are pumped up a notch, and perfectly blended.

Brighten the under-eye area by layering pink-toned corrector under yellow-toned concealer. Then set it with loose powder applied with a powder brush or puff. This step is an absolute necessity as television lights increase shine.

Use full-coverage foundation followed by powder to keep it matte. Sheer tints are too subtle for television.

Even if a glow is desired, it needs to be added to the cheeks at the end of the makeup application.

Color tends to wash out, so always use two shades of blush—one natural shade followed by a brighter pop of color. Correct blending is a must.

Avoid lip colors that are too light unless the subject’s lips are so full that you want to downplay them Television tends to wash out natural tones.

Define lips with pencil.

Make sure hands, arms, neck, and ears all match the face.

Bronzer is a great help, especially on the neck.

High-Definition Television

High-definition television is extremely unforgiving. (It definitely wasn’t invented by a woman over twenty years old.) It conveys very sharp contrast with great detail. The makeup you apply has to be both fluid and perfectly blended. Foundation that is not correctly applied will look like it’s melting off the face. Remember two words: coverage and blending.

Always check makeup in the monitor to see how it reads with lighting.

Blemishes need to be expertly covered.

FILM

Directors, lighting, and scripts dictate what style of makeup needs to be done. Communicate with everyone involved, ask lots of questions, and do lots of testing. The real makeup challenge, when working on films, is maintaining continuity. Scenes are often shot out of sequence, and part of a makeup artist’s job is to make sure the character looks the same in each scene. It can be a slow process, so always have a digital camera and a notebook handy to keep track of the shots. Lighting and style dictate what the makeup should look like.

NINE MEMORABLE WOMEN

These women are all icons and their looks have inspired many makeup artists to recreate them either in movies or editorial work. Whether it’s a direct period piece or just an element — these are the looks that inspire editors and photographers.

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Brigitte Bardot

Light foundation and blush, extra pale lips, and classic medium-thick

eyeliner.

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Audrey Hepburn

Her look was all about the strong squared-off brow, a matte powdery face,

and natural colors.

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Catherine Deneuve

Sexy kitten, smoky eyes, and medium lips.

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Ali McGraw

The icon of the natural American look. Brown eyeshadow, simple dark
brown liner, naturally strong brow, clean skin, tawny cheek, and nude lip.

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Sophia Loren

Classic Italian, sexy yet understated. Her strong features don’t need a lot.
Strong brows, medium lips, clean black eyeliner, and a little blush.

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Marilyn Monroe

Her makeup was all about a sexy face. Strong brows, white eyelids, smoky
contour, false eyelashes, and strong eyeliner, often with a red lip – classic

50s.

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Lena Horne

40s glamour – burgundy lips, eyes lined on top, shadow artfully applied,
strong brow, and visible black false eyelashes.

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Elizabeth Taylor

Whether playing the title role in Cleopatra or Martha in Who’s Afraid of
Virginia Woolf, she always had her violet eyes rimmed with black shadow,

eyeliner, and lashes.

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Grace Kelly

A Hollywood princess: classic blonde and “Ralph Laurenesque” at a black-

tie ball.

MAKEUP for MAGAZINES

The difference between doing basic makeup and doing makeup that is over the top for highly styled fashion shows or magazine work is thinking outside the box. Doing the unexpected — whether it’s as simple as not putting on mascara or brows to a finished face or strengthening the brows to become a full blown experimental piece — is the difference between “basic” beauty and editorial freedom. It’s all about being confident enough to experiment outside of your comfort zone.

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Last, red powder is strategically applied to the right side of the face.

 

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Two Looks, One Model The “All-American” (opposite) and the “Rock-and-roller.” The black shadow was meant to be both messy and wet. I call it “Brigitte Bardot the morning after.”

 

White face and red on center of lips.

 

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Blush is theatrically applied. The eyebrows are Madame Butterfly—inspired.

 

Red liner instead of black—why not?

 

Blush is applied as eye shadow and layered with true red lipstick.

 

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Finished face. Note that the ears and the top of the forehead were intentionally not made up.

 

I’ve always loved unusual beauty. This is not a before photo. To me this face is a blank canvas.

 

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The model looks like a Joffrey Ballet dancer. Pretty, pink, and elegant.

 

Amy Winehouse—inspired look: the blush is left off intentionally and only foundation is applied to her lips.

 

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Some models are chameleons and can carry any look. It’s always fun to play with makeup on them The trick is knowing when and where to stop.

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The necklace is the inspiration for the makeup. The black cream shadow on the eyes may be too much. But the look is dramatic.

For Black-and-White Photography

Define the features. That means a precise application of eyeliner and lip liner, as well as perfectly applied blush.

Avoid using very shimmery shades on the eyes, and don’t use bronzer, as it can look dirty.

Less is more. Smooth out skin and conceal any imperfections, especially under the eyes, with bright concealer that blends perfectly, but don’t go overboard with too much foundation or color.

Lighting will dictate how much makeup you need.

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For Color Photography

Foundation must match the skin exactly.

Never use translucent powder; it can make the face look masklike in a photograph. Instead, use warm, skin-tone-correct shades.

Don’t overdo powder. Especially in close-up photography, too much powder will call attention to any peach-fuzz facial hair.

Skin needs to have even texture. Coverage depends on many variables.

Check Polaroids or digital monitor to see if any corrections have to be made.

A DYNAMIC DUO: Gail Hadani & Paul Innis

The photographer Gail Hadani began painting and exhibiting her work at the age of ten, but her love of singing led her to a career in opera. After years of travel and life on the road as an opera singer, she discovered her passion for photography. Paul Innis, an artist, illustrator, and makeup artist, saw her ad in Le Book, loved the lighting and composition, took a chance, and called her. They now work as a team almost exclusively.

My career really began when I teamed up with Gail Hadani. Gail allows me to be completely creative with no limits. Having the support of a great photographer andfriend is the best tool for success in this industry…

I believe in makeup as an art form. It’s wonderful to do pretty makeup, but there has to be a little art to set you apart from everyone else. You have to find that thing that is creative and beautiful. For me, it is color and three-dimensional objects. I love to glue objects to the face, making what I call beautiful art with a model’s face.

“Candy Land” (photos at right) all started when Gail bought some colored sugar at Dean & DeLuca, not knowing how she could incorporate it into an interesting photograph. At the time,

Gail asked me what I thought we could do with this sugar, and, at the time, I was stumped.

A year and a half later, I realized what I could do with colored sugar, and Candy Land was born. I have developed a love for using common materials to create works of art on models ’ faces. In this project, I started with the colored sugar, gradually adding other bright and powerful candy – inspired colors (photo at lower left). I immediately thought of Life Savers, inspiring the Life Saver-like striped lips, which became one of my pride andjoys as a makeup artist (upper right photo).

I have also always been a fan of making my lashes by chopping up different types of lashes, and then combining those pieces to make different shapes.

The lashes in the shot in the lower right hand corner were four pairs of lashes stacked together to create a unique shape. The lashes were custom fitted to the model’s eyes, but unfortunately, they were also very heavy. So, the model was made to keep her eyes closed in between each shot.

As an artist, I believe you can use almost any products to transform a face into a work of art. Whether it is candy sprinkles, sugar, feathers, or rhinestones, it is all about thinking outside of the box to create spectacular and unique images!

—Paul Tnnis

Meeting Paul changed the course of my life. If it weren ’t for him, I would not be in this business that I have come to love with the same passion I used to have as an opera singer. We developed a distinctive style and worked so frequently together that we learned the art of making a powerful image. Both of us understand the basics of a great painting: composition, shape, light, color balance, emotion, and expression. The camera, lighting, and makeup are the paintbrushes. The set becomes a stage, where as director, I can mold the performances…

Our advice to young makeup artists: practice, practice, practice. Look, learn, create relationships, and put yourself out there.

—Gail Hadani

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MAKEUP FOR PHOTOGRAPHS

Keep in mind the type of photo being taken. You use different techniques for a simple portrait than

for a shoot for a high-end European fashion magazine.

Portrait

Keep the look simple, and make sure the subject is comfortable with the look.

Athlete

Do what’s right for the person, and stick to his or her own style.

Musician

Unless the subject asks for a change, take your cue from his or her style, and don’t stray

too far from it.

Actor

Always ask before you start working. Actors like to evolve and try new things.

Fashion

When working with designers, it is important to be a good observer. Look carefully at the
clothes. Ask about the designer’s vision for the makeup.

Magazine

This kind of work varies tremendously. It is important to understand the style of the
magazine and to get the input of the photographer, editor, and stylist on the shoot. I always
befriend the photo assistant. That person has the best view and lets me know when

something is not quite right.

BLACK-AND-WHITE OR COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY

In general, black-and-white photography is more forgiving than color photography, but both call for careful makeup application in order to get the best results.

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INDOOR OR OUTDOOR PHOTOGRAPHY

Whether photographs are being taken indoors or out, the most important rule is that foundation must exactly match skin tone, and the face has to match the body. Sometimes that means bringing the foundation lower on the neck or using some bronzing powder on the neck and chest to help eliminate any obvious color difference between the face and the body.

With outdoor photography, what you see is what you get. Outdoor lighting is very unforgiving.

Use little foundation and a very light hand with blush. Everything has to look great to the naked eye, and makeup has to be well blended.

For indoor photography, the amount of makeup you apply depends on lighting. Define the features and determine if the lighting will wash out the skin tone or enhance it. Extremely strong lighting requires a heavier hand and more definition. But there are many variables in determining the style you want, so you have to be open to trying varying degrees of coverage and definition.

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