Category: Cosmetic Formulation of Skin Care Products


Background Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q10, Figure 14) is so named because it is ubiquitous in virtually all living cells, excluding some bacteria and fungi, although the level is quite variable. Since most human tissues synthesize ubiquinone, it is not considered to be a vitamin. Ubiquinone is primarily located in the inner mitochondrial membrane where it is […]


To evaluate possible improvement to photodamage, a split-face study was done on 33 women (162). Topical application twice daily of 5% lipoic acid cream for 12 weeks decreased skin roughness by 50.8% (as measured by laser profilometry) when compared with the placebo. Clinical and photographic evaluation showed reduction in lentigenes and fine wrinkles in this […]


a-LA has been found to penetrate rapidly into murine and human skin to dermal and subcutaneous layers. Two hours after application of 5% a-LA in propylene glycol, maximum levels of a-LA were attained in the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue (154). The stratum corneum concentration of a-LA predicted the penetration and levels in the underlying […]

Mechanism of Action and Substantiation of Efficacy

The mechanism by which genistein inhibits carcinogenesis may be through inhibition of tyrosine protein kinases, the enzymes which phosphorylate proteins necessary for the regulation of cell division and transformation (132). Of particular importance is phosphorylation of TPK-dependent epidermal growth factor receptors which are related to tumor promotion, including initiation of transcription factors, release of inflammatory […]


Genistein is an isoflavone isolated from soy, the structure of which is shown in Figure 7. Recent interest in genistein has been stimulated by epidemiological studies which correlate diets high in soy with reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease (123), osteoporosis (123), and certain cancers in humans (124-126). The direct anticarcinogenic action of genistein is documented. […]