Cosmetic Formulation of Skin Care Products

The Cosmetic Science and Technology series was conceived to permit discussion of a broad range of current knowledge and theories of cosmetic science and technology. The series is composed of books written by either one or two authors or edited volumes with a number of contributors. Authorities from industry, academia, and the government participate in writing these books.

The aim of the series is to cover the many facets of cosmetic science and technology. Topics are drawn from a wide spectrum of disciplines ranging from chemistry, physics, biochemistry and dermatology to consumer evaluations, safety issues, efficacy, toxicity and regulatory questions. Organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and polymer chemistry, microbiology, emulsion and lipid technology all play important roles in cosmetic science.

There is little commonality in the scientific methods, processes and formulations required for the wide variety of toiletries and cosmetics in the market. Products range from hair, skin, and oral care products to lipsticks, nail polishes, deodorants, body powders and aerosols, to cosmeceuticals which are quasi-pharmaceutical over-the-counter products such as antiperspirants, dandruff shampoos, wrinkle reducers, antimicrobial soaps, acne treatments, or sun screen products.

Emphasis in the Cosmetic Science and Technology series is placed on reporting the current status of cosmetic science and technology, the ever-changing regulatory climate, and historical reviews. The series has now grown to 30 books dealing with the constantly changing trends in the cosmetic industry, including globalization. Several of the books have been translated into Japanese and Chinese. Contributions range from highly sophisticated and scientific treaties to primers and presentations of practical applications. Authors are encouraged to present their own concepts as well as established theories. Contributors have been asked not to shy away from fields that are in a state of transition or somewhat controversial, and not to hesitate to present detailed discussions of their own work. Altogether, we intend to develop in this series a collection of critical surveys and ideas covering the diverse phases of the cosmetic industry.

The thirtieth book in this series, Cosmetic Formulation of Skin Care Products edited by Zoe Diana Draelos, MD and Lauren Thaman, MS comprises 22 chapters authored or co-authored by over 30 experts in the field. The development of cosmetics and toiletries represents a highly diversified field involving many subsections of science and “art.” It covers the discovery of novel raw materials, development and manufacture of unique formulations, ever more sophisticated testing methods particularly in the areas of safety, clinical and performance efficacy evaluations, and claim substantiation. But even in these days of high technology and ever increasing scientific sophistication, art and intuition continue to play an important part in the development of formulations, their evaluation,

selection of raw materials, and, perhaps most importantly, the successful marketing of new products. Aesthetic considerations, such as fragrance, color, packaging and product positioning often can be as important to the success of a new cosmetic product as delivering the promised (implied) performance or the use of a new magic ingredient.

The application of more sophisticated methodologies to the evaluation of cosmetics that began in the 1980s has continued and has greatly impacted such areas as claim substantiation, safety and efficacy testing, product evaluations and testing, development of new raw materials, such as biotechnology products, for example products produced by microorganisms where genes are modified by recombinant DNA technologies. But regardless how great the science and the medical proofs behind a new product, bad or just indifferent aesthetics can hurt the performance in the marketplace.

New cosmetic formulations usually are the result of systematic development programs sponsored by corporations and carried out either in their own laboratories or by sponsored programs in cooperation with consulting laboratories. Their development involves individuals with diverse backgrounds, experience, and objectives. Though multi-tasking has become a favorite buzzword, there are obvious limitations. Top management and marketing and advertising executives identify areas of new product development that were either developed internally or brought to their attention by various outsides sources. This sometimes leads to a push for extravagant claims that might require the repeal of one or more laws of nature. The product development chemists (formulators) in the laboratory are then charged with meeting the performance objectives and product parameters set by management. In addition, they have to be concerned with a host of considerations, ranging from safety issues, global regulations, raw material cost and availability, awareness of the competitive climate, patent status, adequate preservation, stability and compatibility issues, product scale-up and production problems, to cosmetic elegance considerations, such as fragrance selection, color, and packaging. Finally, there is the medical fraternity, often dermatologists, devising and supervising efficacy and safety tests concerned with the performance of the products. This can be a key activity particularly with cosmeceuticals and other products making clinical claims that need substantiation and scientific credibility.

When looking at the total process of developing and commercializing a new cosmetic product, there are a number of stakeholders: top management, marketing and sales, R&D and operations, academic support groups, and consultants. These groups may have quite different philosophical approaches and goals. While all share a common goal of coming up with a commercially successful product, there are often real differences in how the various groups view or perceive the project. Some are clearly business-driven; others are science-driven.

This book tries to bridge some of these differences. Business-driven activities include top management’s desire to have the product in the market place with good customer acceptance, a strong business plan and strategy, and good profit margins; involvement in the details on how this is achieved is secondary. To quote a speaker (Harvey Gedeon, Estee Lauder Companies) at the 2005 Annual meeting of Society of Cosmetic Chemists, “Management expects us to create low-cost breakthrough products that are the best-in-category.” Marketing and sales are concerned with developing the marketing strategies and coordinating and directing the management of the new product or brand. Science-driven activities predominate in the laboratory. The formulators and the clinical workers attacking the various technical problems will be intrigued by the use of new chemicals, clever processing techniques, patentability and new testing techniques, often involving expensive new and intriguing new technical tools to solve the technical challenges presented by the project. Sometimes too many technical tangents can delay the timely resolution of new product development projects. Building a good communication bridge between the business and different science-driven groups is the key to the success of a new cosmetic product.

I want to thank all the contributors and the editors, Zoe Diana Draelos, MD and Lauren Thaman, MS for participating in the Cosmetic Science and Technology series and the Informa Healthcare organization, particularly Sandra Beberman, with whom I have worked since the inception of this series twenty-five years ago, for their support and help.

Eric Jungermann, PhD

MAKEUP ARTISTRY

I’ve set out to write the simplest, most comprehensive makeup lesson you will ever have. I’ve
written this book for everyone: my artists, students, friends, and every woman who ever wanted to put

on makeup like a professional.

When I first started working as a freelance makeup artist, it was almost impossible to find books dedicated to makeup artistry. This situation has improved over the years, but there is still a noticeable lack of good and accessible resources on makeup artistry. After scouring countless bookstores in search of the perfect makeup reference, I finally decided to write my own guide. My vision for this book is simple. I wanted it to be filled with complete step-by-step lessons, industry tips, and beautiful pictures. I wanted this book to serve as a complete reference guide for everyone who wants to know about beauty and makeup.

I have found that women are either intrigued with or mystified by cosmetics, but most are interested in learning more about makeup and how it can transform a face. All women really want the same thing: to look like themselves, only prettier and more confident. That desire is what actually inspired me, at twelve years old, to create the “natural look” for which I’m known. In seventh grade, the coolest thing was to hear how tan you were. So I used my mother’s bronzer, put it on my cheeks, forehead, nose, and chin—until it looked like a real tan. I put on her lipstick and then rubbed it off. I wanted people to say I looked pretty—and not notice the makeup.

Years later, when I worked as a makeup artist, I learned from many of the leading professionals. My early work was a mixture of the natural look with risky bolts of color. I worked with George Newell, who did beautiful pale skin, very 80s red lips, bronze cheeks, and dark eyes. His style was not mine, but he was a great talent who taught me things I could not have learned elsewhere. I also studied under Linda Mason, the artist known for her abstract uses of color on the face. She taught me to go beyond my comfort zone and push myself to the unexpected. Then I met my mentor, Bonnie Maller. I first saw her work in a magazine profile. She did all the makeup for Bruce Weber and all the ads for Perry Ellis, Calvin Klein, and Ralph Lauren. Her style was outdoorsy, as you can imagine. She had the same aesthetic as I did, and perfected the look. It changed my life. Her makeup was most instrumental in helping my style emerge. It was clean, natural, and always beautiful.

In the early days, I was like a sponge, learning from others, and then experimenting to see what I liked. I now look back on this time as graduate school. I read and studied every fashion spread. I loved the way light hit the colors on the face, and tried to recreate the looks. I began assisting makeup

artists and eventually, with that experience, started to lead my own team.

When you are hired to do a show, you meet with the designer, and sometimes the stylist, to discuss the desired look and to possibly try the makeup on a model. The makeup has to be beautiful and work with the clothes. I used to experiment with concealer on lips to make a pale lip color statement while doing Brigitte Bardot-inspired, dark, smoky eyes or the brightest red and pink lips with very little on the eyes. I also remember using brown eye pencil on lips, which started the whole brown lip look.

By the time I started Bobbi Brown Cosmetics, I already had a group of artists who helped me do fashion shows. Early in my career, I couldn’t pay them much, so I hired the ones who were eager to do the work for the experience and training. I started by inviting them to assist me—even if they just held brushes or observed. I watched them do makeup. I watched them watch me do makeup.

I love working with people who soak up information. Everyone has potential. I’ve never met anyone who could not master the skills needed, but many who lacked the confidence. I do believe that there is always more to learn, and I love the process.

I also believe every woman would gain confidence if she understood more about applying her makeup, using the right tools, finding the colors that work for her and perfecting the basic techniques.

I’ve written this book for everyone: my artists, students, friends, and every woman who ever wanted professional instruction. I’ve gone into more detail than ever before and photographed hundreds of step-by-step photos to show you as much detail as possible. I’ve also put the entire “class” into the sequence that I believe works best. Understanding the skin is the best way to start, and then building from foundation and concealer to color, lips, eyes, and everything in between. I believe this will be the most comprehensive makeup lesson you will ever have.

For the makeup artist or those who aspire to be one, I’ve written a section for professionals in the second part of the book. In this section, you’ll find important information from how to pack a professional makeup kit to how to work with photographers.

The best artists continually want to learn. Artists who think they know everything don’t grow. Professional makeup artists must love makeup. They need to be obsessed with the art and the business and cannot be afraid of hard work. Artists have to be able to see, evaluate their work, and take criticism as an opportunity to grow. In makeup that means learning to recognize skin condition and texture, evaluate and effectively use color, and determine when formulation and application choices work and what to do when they don’t.

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This book is a true labor of love. It was written with the help of my team of makeup artists, friends, and customers—who have all contributed questions, concerns, and tips about makeup. Even though I’ve been in the makeup industry for over twenty years, I continue to learn.

The beauty industry is constantly changing, so it is important to stay open to new ideas, to acknowledge when techniques or styles don’t work anymore, and to try new approaches and solutions. The goal is always to help women look and feel beautiful.

I expect that aspiring makeup artists will want to read every word of this book. Others may pick and choose to read those sections that apply to their concerns. Makeup artistry is incredibly gratifying. So be open, have fun, and never stop learning.

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