THE LAZY ONES

These people are easy to spot. Their kit is often dirty, old, and made up of the cheaper products. Their attitude is slap it on, whip it off, and cash the check as soon as possible. They gossip too much on set, don’t do enough checks on the makeup, and their real interest tends to lie in finding out how much everyone else is getting paid.

The lazy ones usually get into makeup because it looked interesting and a bit glamorous and frankly, they couldn’t think of anything else to do with their lives. I could even name names right here, safe in the knowledge that they would never be read by those lazy individuals simply because they’re never likely to read a new book on makeup, never mind buy one, because, frankly, they’re not that interested.

Preface

Cosmetic formulation is becoming increasingly complex given the challenges of formulating for a technologically sophisticated consumer. This text is designed to meet the needs of the cosmetic chemist, scientist, dermatologist and formulator who must understand a wide range of issues to create successful, novel skin care products for a diverse population. To accomplish this end, the text is divided into the key knowledge areas of cutaneous formulation issues, formulation development, raw materials and active ingredients, and product testing, efficacy, and clinical assessment. The section on cutaneous formulation deals with the unique aspects of formulating for specific body areas, such as the face, eyelids, lips, hands, underarms, etc., while discussing the needs of special populations, such as individuals with sensitive skin, rosacea, atopic dermatitis, etc. Issues specific to both genders and all skin color types are presented. This initial section presents the framework necessary to design products that successfully perform in body areas with unique anatomic considerations while considering gender and ethnic differences.

The text continues by delving into formulation development by product category: cleansers, moisturizers, toners, antiperspirants, and sunscreens. This allows the reader to take the information learned in section one regarding unique anatomic needs and create skin care products by employing state-of-the-art formulation chemistry. However, the skin care industry has moved beyond basic skin maintenance product categories into actives designed to deliver skin-enhancing benefits. These areas of skin treatment include the realms of acne, photoaging, dyspigmentation, and inflammation. Actives that are important in these areas include salicylic acid, benzoyl peroxide, hydroxy acids, retinoids, vitamins, hydroquinone, antioxidants, botanicals, etc. Understanding the mechanism of action and formulation issues regarding these actives allows the creation of skin care products that deliver benefits into the treatment realm beyond maintenance.

In summary, the text presents diverse knowledge sets from dermatology, cosmetic chemistry, and product formulation. It synthesizes the information into one cohesive unit for practical application by the dermatologist, cosmetic chemist, formulator, or testing facility. Only by understanding all aspects of cosmetic formulation can technology expand the skin care marketplace.

Zoe Diana Draelos Lauren A. Thaman

PRODUCT

I’m not talking about measuring your shampoo or sitting on your toothpaste to get the last drop out of it. But so many of us have the philosophy,

"If a little is good, then more must be even bet­ter. Even more will really make me sizzle."

You know how they tell you to shampoo twice? You don’t always need to. Trust your own beauty intuition.

THERE IS NO CORRELATION BETWEEN THE AMOUNT OF MONEY YOU SPEND TO THE VALUE OF BEAUTY BENEFITS.

GETTING A GREAT DEAL DOESN’T MEAN DEPRIVING YOURSELF

You’re just learning to do everything a little dif­ferently. You can still see your favorite movie, but might consider taking in a matinee. You might not be choosing a tony day spa, but instead treating yourself to a manicure for under $10. You may not be able to invest in a new wardrobe, but be thrilled with a new scarf that feels and looks great. Going to spend big money on a beautifully scented sachet? Of course not, you can make your own in minutes.

Legendary fashion designer Coco Chanel said it best: "There are people who have money and people who are rich." You can look rich without anyone knowing your budget.

. THE PRICE OF BEAUTY

GETTING

STARTED

How do you begin? You start by throwing away any previous conceptions about how beauty should look. More than anything you can put on your face or body, you need to visualize what you want to look like. You should sit down and figure out what you need to obtain your beauty goals.

TRY BEFORE YOU BUY

Insist on trying anything you will put on or in your body. If that’s not possible, then there should be a solid customer satisfaction response.

DO YOUR HOMEWORK

Talk to friends about products that they use, the results they got, what worked, and what didn’t.

Don’t Let Them Hook You In

You’ll see pictures of beautiful models, ■ you’ll hear incredible testimonials (oh, those. infomercials), and yet you need to take it all I with a grain of salt. Does it sound too. good? Too quick? Too bizarre? It probably I is. The beauty and diet industries are multi – ( billion-dollar cash cows and they’ll do—and I say—anything to grab your attention and ( ^ money. Ji

THE PERFECTiONiSTS

I have a lot of respect for the perfectionist, especially as I’m not one. The per­fectionist will strive to make every detail of his or her makeup. . . well, perfect! Though there’s a lot to be admired about the perfectionist, and I know and admire a lot of them, they also have a habit of driving people nuts. Makeup is often a collaborative medium; actually, it’s nearly always a collaborative medium as it involves a subject, often an actor, who participates by being the canvas for the makeup, but the perfectionist doesn’t consider anyone or anything other than his or her own work.

When makeup artists keep an actor tied to the chair for five hours and push the makeup to the extremes of wearability and comfort to perfect a masterpiece, they’re neglecting to consider the job of the actor who then needs to perform while wearing their creation. When this happens it’s no longer collaboration. There’s so much more to the job of the makeup artist than the makeup itself,
but the perfectionist is often simply too consumed by his or her own interests to give a fig. Sadly, it’s always for naught anyway, since nothing can ever be perfect and they spend a career chasing their tails.

INTRODUCTION

Who doesn’t love a bargain? And who among us doesn’t want to look as fabulous as possible without a lot of time, money, or effort? More than any other intimate secret, we want to know the beauty secrets of other women, and we want to hear that we can afford to look the way they do.

There’s an ongoing tug-of-war between wanting to look great and feeling guilty about spending a lot to do it. I have some good news for you. You don’t have to spend a lot to look like you have. There are shortcuts and tricks of the trade that will get you styling without filing for bankruptcy.

With Bargain Beauty Secrets, you can learn how to stop making costly and embarrassing mis­takes. You will expand your personal style and taste. You will begin to develop beauty radar that will get you looking better than ever while stretching your dollars twice as far.

The confidence you previously thought could only come at a high price will now be locked inside. Your looks and your esteem will soar with each decision that is certain and rational.

You’ll learn the beauty jargon, the marketing ploys that push your buttons, and insider tricks of the trade that are remarkably affordable. The best news? You’re going to look and feel better in the least amount of time and with little or no cost to you.

Special Makeup Effects for. Stage and Screen: Making and. Applying Prosthetics

at does it take to be a good makeup artist? There really are no formal qualifications. It’s not like training to be a doctor or a pilot, where you’re not able to work without hard-earned certificates and by passing rigorous exams.

Sure, there are various diplomas, degrees, and certificates you can get from the numerous schools and colleges worldwide that state that you’ve passed some sort of test of their devising to "qualify" you as a makeup artist, but, in my opinion, those bits of paper are all fairly meaningless.

My wife has a joke about this. She points out to me that she’s put on makeup every single day for the past 20-some years, so this must qualify her to call her­self a makeup artist, right? You know what? In a way, she’s right. Anyone can call him – or herself a makeup artist. The question becomes, What kind of makeup artist are you?

In my experience there are several kinds of makeup artists, and I’m not talking about different categories of makeup artists such as prosthetic makeup artist, beauty makeup artist, or bridal makeup artist. What I’m talking about are the categories that makeup artists fall into defined by their attitude toward their craft. I was about to type job at the end of the last sentence, but of course not everyone who will read this book and practice the techniques they’ve gleaned from these pages will earn a living doing makeup. Some do it as a hobby. Some do it for fun at their local community theater, but however you practice makeup, you’ll still fall into one of these three categories.

Chapter one first things first

I believe looking good starts with feeling good.

Before we consider what to put on our faces, we must confront what’s going on inside our heads! For a lot of us, it’s a blurry mess of negativity. But right now, we can choose to make a change: we can decide to sharpen our focus and start seeing the positive.

I hear the skeptics out there already. Hey, Carmindy, that ’s great and everything, but could you just show me how to make my lips look bigger? Well, guess what? I can show you lots of ways to gloss up your pucker, but you’ll only be pretty if you feel that way without a darn thing on those lips. And you’ll only be beautiful when kind, loving words pass from them!

Words are incredibly powerful, and thoughts are even more so. Need proof?

How often have you stopped a friend whose eyes were clouded with worry and said, “What’s the matter? You look upset.” Or conversely, you’ve seen that same friend floating on cloud nine and said, “You look amazing. What’s going on?” Same woman, different thoughts—a totally altered appearance.

That dynamic plays out on our own faces every day. How we think affects how we look. Period.

Though we can’t always control how the world comes at us, we can decide to feel good about ourselves and to meet challenges head-on, with our best face forward. A confident face that knows its finest features and plays them up. A one-of-a-kind face that honors its special beauty and owns it from the inside out.

I’ve built my career by homing in on the natural beauty I find in each woman I consult with. But do you know what I spend the most time doing? It isn’t mascara. It’s convincing a woman to see the gorgeous potential I see in her and to believe in her own gifts.

Fans of What Not to Wear know how stubborn I can be about this. I simply won’t allow a capable, captivating woman to sit before me and tear herself down. How can I consider a makeover a success if a lady hasn’t first made over her mind? This goes especially for you, my friend!

You chose this book because you want to bring out your best. It’s such a privilege for me to play a part in your transformation. And so exciting! Let’s get going by turning off those negative old thought patterns and switching on the lovely light you know is burning inside.

Chapter one first things first

Here’s how. . .

Drop the Flaw Focus

Sounds simple, right? But after two decades in the beauty biz, I know how difficult it is to shut out the negative messages coming at us every day.

Think for a moment about beauty “experts” who show us how to fix what they perceive is wrong with a given face. They see and point out the flaws first—expecting us to agree with the criticism— and then give instruction on how to camouflage the “issue.” We can get so caught up in obeying their authority that we start transferring other women’s “problem areas” to our own faces: suddenly we can only see dark undereye circles or thin lips. Before you know it, we feel worse than before.

We can hardly place blame on the beauty industry alone. Often the destructive cycle starts much closer to home.

No matter who you are, chances are people in your past have made negative comments about your appearance. Maybe a childhood bully yelled, “Hey, pizza face.” Or an uncle whispered, “Quite a honker of a schnoz she’s got there.” Or a controlling boyfriend hissed, “Your eyes are so tiny, no wonder you can’t drive straight.”

I’m sure you have your own painful list. Why is it that we remember the insults and forget the compliments? Beats me, but we do—especially when we’re young and forming our ideas about ourselves, and looking to others for guidance. When people close to us try to boost their self­importance by cutting us down, the wounds go deep.

Again, it’s all about the power of words. We hold on to these negative opinions as truth. A nasty remark said in passing turns into a long-lasting insecurity. Rather than fight the insults, we agree. What’s worse is that we take over the role of critic and turn up the volume.

I can’t tell you how many women I have worked with who, when I say, “Wow, what beautiful eyes you have,” argue that they are too small. Or if I say, “Check out your terrific complexion,” they’ll point out how big their pores are. I feel like calling the Centers for Disease Control to report an epidemic of facial dysmorphic disorder!

Even if you have been lucky enough to go through life unscathed by negative comments, you may have chosen to generate your own, perhaps as a member of the age-hating party. You may be one of those women who tracks every miniscule change, scrutinizing and agonizing. Every trip to the mirror ends in panicked dread.

It’s ridiculous. It’s also a serious misuse of our feminine power.

By focusing on what’s “wrong” with our looks, we’re—by definition—dwelling on the negative. When we’re harsh with ourselves, we’re agreeing with those who sought to hurt us. And we’re fueling a damaging cycle that not only dulls our appearance but also darkens our days. Now I ask you, is that how we want to be? Acting as our own worst enemies?

I hear you, feisty ladies. N. O.

So, what do we say yes to instead? Being positively beautiful by celebrating our individuality and enhancing our unique assets.

Every woman has a special bloom all her own. Now is the time to take notice—starting in our own mirrors.

I realize your urge might be to fight me on this. Old habits are tough to break. But has being so tough on yourself brought you the results you want? Clearly not.

By dropping the flaw focus, you set off on a new path, one that’s freeing and wonderful.

To understand how silly it is to hold one standard of beauty and to see any variation from it as a flaw, play along with me for a moment. . .

Imagine hearing a floral expert on a home improvement show proclaiming, “Only roses are beautiful.” Our instincts would disagree. But, hey, we might still listen. A few minutes later, some of us might believe it and consider tearing up our magnolia trees and painting our orchids to look like roses. But why stop there? Delicate violets, striking birds of paradise? Hit the trash. Elegant calla lilies, scentsational lilacs? Off you go. Heck, we might grow to resent the rose’s beauty and stop caring about flowers altogether. How absurd, right? Well, we have spent far too much time plucking away at our petals, and it has to stop.

Let go of the past. Drop that destructive commentary stuck on repeat. It’s a tired track, and no one can dance to it!

How?

Chapter one first things first

Start by trying this simple exercise. Look into a mirror and speak aloud your usual negative thoughts, like, “Ugh. These dark circles.” Notice your whole facial expression as you say it. Now take a deep breath, concentrate on something positive in the same area, and praise it, loud and proud. “Check out my gorgeous eyes.” What happens to your face simply from switching your focus and your words?

I’d bet my bottom dollar you immediately look happier, more relaxed. Now, does it feel a little silly at first? Maybe. But it’s a whole lot sillier to be dishing yourself a big ol’ plate of negative energy that manifests itself right smack in the middle of your face. Speaking sweetly of yourself, to yourself is more than a nicety. It’s a necessity and the most potent beauty secret I know.

Ultimately, it’s up to you to let go and take that first step toward the positive. You’re in charge of your thoughts and emotions. It’s your face, your image, and your life. Do you want it to be about your flaws or about your fabulousness?

Exactly.

Kick Away Corrosive Comparisons

Getting your mind made up to be beauty-positive is a fantastic first step. But staying focused on your unique attributes requires constant care, especially when the media and advertisers conspire to sabotage our efforts by inviting us to play the most time-wasting game ever: Compare and Despair.

Television and magazines bombard us with images of so-called beauty ideals that look nothing like you or me. The motive? To keep us second-guessing our own worth. We see shot after shot of celebrities who are glorified when they are “perfect” and vilified when they “let themselves go.” We’re encouraged to judge these stars. And we do.

Comparison games create corrosive thought patterns, patterns that push us to talk negatively about ourselves and pit us against our fellow ladies. We all suffer the consequences.

Consider how many of us look at a photograph of a pretty woman—or, should I say, of a woman who fits with what society has dictated as pretty. First, we notice her beauty and appreciate it for its own sake. Then, about a half second later, that inner critic starts piping up: “I look nothing like her. Therefore, I’m hideous.” I can almost hear the announcer right there alongside you: “Yes indeed, ladies. Another great afternoon ruined by a fun-filled round of Compare and Despair! Dedicated to keeping you in your place by knocking your spirit!”

I want off that not-so-merry-go-round. How about you?

We are society so, it is up to us to choose how we respond to what we see. The media and marketers will only change if we change our thinking and our behavior. Thank goodness, it’s already starting to happen. For example, I applaud companies like Dove for their revolutionary Campaign for Real Beauty. Now is the perfect time to be your own beauty revolutionary, to stand up for what’s yours and to act accordingly.

Now, don’t get me wrong; admiring other women can be inspiring. As a kid, I idolized Marilyn Monroe and tried to emulate eighties supermodel Kim Alexis—both blondes with light eyes. Coincidence? Hardly. I find most women fixate on celebs who match their coloring, as if these stars are the ultimate remix of their own features. But guess what? If you were the famous one, those same people would be talking about your beauty.

After all, the actual definition of celebrity is “one who is celebrated.” Want to be a celebrity? Start celebrating yourself! Decide that comparing and despairing is tedious and toxic, whether the standard you’re applying is that of a fashion model or a woman at the gym Recognize that there will always be someone more “this” and someone less “that.” But the one with the most confidence wins every time. Resolve not to waste another minute keeping score.

You have far better ways to use that newfound time and energy.

Chapter one first things first

Cosmetic Formulation of Skin Care Products

The Cosmetic Science and Technology series was conceived to permit discussion of a broad range of current knowledge and theories of cosmetic science and technology. The series is composed of books written by either one or two authors or edited volumes with a number of contributors. Authorities from industry, academia, and the government participate in writing these books.

The aim of the series is to cover the many facets of cosmetic science and technology. Topics are drawn from a wide spectrum of disciplines ranging from chemistry, physics, biochemistry and dermatology to consumer evaluations, safety issues, efficacy, toxicity and regulatory questions. Organic, inorganic, physical, analytical and polymer chemistry, microbiology, emulsion and lipid technology all play important roles in cosmetic science.

There is little commonality in the scientific methods, processes and formulations required for the wide variety of toiletries and cosmetics in the market. Products range from hair, skin, and oral care products to lipsticks, nail polishes, deodorants, body powders and aerosols, to cosmeceuticals which are quasi-pharmaceutical over-the-counter products such as antiperspirants, dandruff shampoos, wrinkle reducers, antimicrobial soaps, acne treatments, or sun screen products.

Emphasis in the Cosmetic Science and Technology series is placed on reporting the current status of cosmetic science and technology, the ever-changing regulatory climate, and historical reviews. The series has now grown to 30 books dealing with the constantly changing trends in the cosmetic industry, including globalization. Several of the books have been translated into Japanese and Chinese. Contributions range from highly sophisticated and scientific treaties to primers and presentations of practical applications. Authors are encouraged to present their own concepts as well as established theories. Contributors have been asked not to shy away from fields that are in a state of transition or somewhat controversial, and not to hesitate to present detailed discussions of their own work. Altogether, we intend to develop in this series a collection of critical surveys and ideas covering the diverse phases of the cosmetic industry.

The thirtieth book in this series, Cosmetic Formulation of Skin Care Products edited by Zoe Diana Draelos, MD and Lauren Thaman, MS comprises 22 chapters authored or co-authored by over 30 experts in the field. The development of cosmetics and toiletries represents a highly diversified field involving many subsections of science and “art.” It covers the discovery of novel raw materials, development and manufacture of unique formulations, ever more sophisticated testing methods particularly in the areas of safety, clinical and performance efficacy evaluations, and claim substantiation. But even in these days of high technology and ever increasing scientific sophistication, art and intuition continue to play an important part in the development of formulations, their evaluation,

selection of raw materials, and, perhaps most importantly, the successful marketing of new products. Aesthetic considerations, such as fragrance, color, packaging and product positioning often can be as important to the success of a new cosmetic product as delivering the promised (implied) performance or the use of a new magic ingredient.

The application of more sophisticated methodologies to the evaluation of cosmetics that began in the 1980s has continued and has greatly impacted such areas as claim substantiation, safety and efficacy testing, product evaluations and testing, development of new raw materials, such as biotechnology products, for example products produced by microorganisms where genes are modified by recombinant DNA technologies. But regardless how great the science and the medical proofs behind a new product, bad or just indifferent aesthetics can hurt the performance in the marketplace.

New cosmetic formulations usually are the result of systematic development programs sponsored by corporations and carried out either in their own laboratories or by sponsored programs in cooperation with consulting laboratories. Their development involves individuals with diverse backgrounds, experience, and objectives. Though multi-tasking has become a favorite buzzword, there are obvious limitations. Top management and marketing and advertising executives identify areas of new product development that were either developed internally or brought to their attention by various outsides sources. This sometimes leads to a push for extravagant claims that might require the repeal of one or more laws of nature. The product development chemists (formulators) in the laboratory are then charged with meeting the performance objectives and product parameters set by management. In addition, they have to be concerned with a host of considerations, ranging from safety issues, global regulations, raw material cost and availability, awareness of the competitive climate, patent status, adequate preservation, stability and compatibility issues, product scale-up and production problems, to cosmetic elegance considerations, such as fragrance selection, color, and packaging. Finally, there is the medical fraternity, often dermatologists, devising and supervising efficacy and safety tests concerned with the performance of the products. This can be a key activity particularly with cosmeceuticals and other products making clinical claims that need substantiation and scientific credibility.

When looking at the total process of developing and commercializing a new cosmetic product, there are a number of stakeholders: top management, marketing and sales, R&D and operations, academic support groups, and consultants. These groups may have quite different philosophical approaches and goals. While all share a common goal of coming up with a commercially successful product, there are often real differences in how the various groups view or perceive the project. Some are clearly business-driven; others are science-driven.

This book tries to bridge some of these differences. Business-driven activities include top management’s desire to have the product in the market place with good customer acceptance, a strong business plan and strategy, and good profit margins; involvement in the details on how this is achieved is secondary. To quote a speaker (Harvey Gedeon, Estee Lauder Companies) at the 2005 Annual meeting of Society of Cosmetic Chemists, “Management expects us to create low-cost breakthrough products that are the best-in-category.” Marketing and sales are concerned with developing the marketing strategies and coordinating and directing the management of the new product or brand. Science-driven activities predominate in the laboratory. The formulators and the clinical workers attacking the various technical problems will be intrigued by the use of new chemicals, clever processing techniques, patentability and new testing techniques, often involving expensive new and intriguing new technical tools to solve the technical challenges presented by the project. Sometimes too many technical tangents can delay the timely resolution of new product development projects. Building a good communication bridge between the business and different science-driven groups is the key to the success of a new cosmetic product.

I want to thank all the contributors and the editors, Zoe Diana Draelos, MD and Lauren Thaman, MS for participating in the Cosmetic Science and Technology series and the Informa Healthcare organization, particularly Sandra Beberman, with whom I have worked since the inception of this series twenty-five years ago, for their support and help.

Eric Jungermann, PhD